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What is Gracie Jiu-Jitsu?

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Roberto Pedreira

April 9, 2020

Rorion Gracie went to the USA to be a movie star. He ended up asking for spare change on the streets [according to his 1989 Playboy interview with Pat Jordan]. But only temporarily. Unexpectedly, his family's "jiu-jitsu" turned out to be very popular (thanks in no small part to Art Davie, Morishita Naoto, and a few others). It didn't happen suddenly or without some random luck.

One of the main pieces of luck that aided jiu-jitsu's rise to global dominance was tangsudo karateman/movie actor Chuck Norris's meeting with certain members of the Gracie clan in Brazil. Chuck was an open-minded guy with some judo background and was impressed with the Gracie's application of Brazilian common-sense to certain martial arts puzzles, such as, how do you win a fight, or avoid losing, to a large aggressive assailant who wants to beat you down with rapier-quick, devastating punches or back-alley Irish boot kicks? The Gracies had a solution. Chuck invited Rorion and a bunch of his brothers and cousins to explain what it was. 

It happened at the UFAF Convention in Las Vegas, July 22, 1988. Chuck's student Denny Lane filmed it (here).  

Chuck introduced Rorion as Helio's Gracie's oldest son, which he was, and Rickson as the "champion of Brazil and probably everywhere else", which he wasn't.

Rorion then explained that:

gHe [Helio Gracie] learned from a former world champion that went to Brazil about 70 years ago and he learned the basics from the Japanesec..actually his older brother Carlosc..and this Gracie jiu-jitsu has actually been developed by our family from the last 60 years. So itfs not exactly the same kind of jiu-jitsu that you find in Japan. We got the basics from the former world champion and then we developed our own style, so thatfs what the Gracie jiu-jitsu is called to differentiate this style from all other styles of jiu-jitsu that you might have heard of. We, you know, we could have called it something else but since we got the basics from jiu-jitsu, 60 percent of what we do today has actually been developed by our family. So itfs not exactly the same thing. Itfs kind of a variation of it.h

After the first UFC the martial arts world in general began to take notice. Even pacifistic, spiritually oriented aikidoists were intrigued by the apparent effectiveness and efficiency of "Gracie Jiu-Jitsu."  Rorion enlightened them in an interview with James Williams and Stanley Pranin in Aikido Journal Online, published August 27, 1994:

gMy father Helio is the one who actually masterminded what we now call Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. Initially he taught the traditional Japanese Jiu-Jitsu that he learned by watching my uncle [Carlos]. In time, through trial and error, he kept polishing the art and made it more refinedc..The movements and chokes you see in judo and other Jiu-Jitsu practitioners are basically the same ones we do. The techniques that we have in jiu-jitsu were not invented by my father. He never claimed to do that. What he did was make the art a little more accessible to the weaker person.h

The story evolved slightly over the six years. Helio became more central, the "mastermind" in fact. Emphasis was placed on how Helio had "polished and refined" jiu-jitsu [or actually, what he erroneously believed was "traditional jiu-jitsu."]  There was surprisingly little BS, at least compared to what came later. Mitsuyo Maeda was not mentioned by name. Rorion modestly claimed merely that Helio made judo and jiu-jitsu "a little more accessible to the weaker person." The ludicrously exaggerated claims that have proliferated since then were (it seems) the result of intra-family rivalries (see here) and competition over market-share, and internet speculation.  (Initially, most members of the family had little to say, usually, "that's what I heard" or nothing at all. Ironically, the family member who had the best story to tell didn't need to fabricate anything because his story was true and verifiable. But he didn't speak English, he didn't have a law degree, he didn't grasp the psychology of American martial arts fans, and he wasn't megalomaniacal. Strangely, Rorion rarely, or never, mentioned him.)

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Shortly after the first and second Ultimate Championships, Japanese martial arts fans became curious about the Gracie family's "jiu-jitsu." For one thing, they wanted to know why the Brazilians were calling it "jiu-jitsu" when it was obviously judo? At the same time, the Japanese were aware that all "styles" and systems, including Kodokan Judo, began as extensions and blends of what came before or what was practiced somewhere else, adapted to the requirements of current circumstances. They were also interested in exactly how these Brazilian "Gracies" adapted judo for their own purposes. They were not oblivious to the significant economic potential of this new group of international rivals (see interview with Morishita Naoto). 

A group of Japanese martial arts specialists decided to explore these questions. Their source materials were: Videos of UFC 1 and UFC 2; Gracie marketing materials; and Gracie instructional tapes. As it turned out, some Japanese martial arts researchers subsequently drew conclusions based on this same dubious Gracie material, as well as the article to be discussed below. The results were predictably inaccurate (see here for some examples. Despite these limitations the article is worth reviewing. Here it is.

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Gracie Jiu-Jitsu: The Reality of Jūjutsu based on Experience of Real Fighting (ƒOƒŒƒCƒV[_p: “¬‘ˆ‚ÌŽÀŒ±ê‚©‚çŠ_ŠÔŒ©‚¦‚é_p‚̐³‘Ì).

July 1994, pp. 26-35, ”é“`ŒÃ—¬•pŒŽŠ§ (The Hidden Traditional Martial Skills Monthly). 

By •Ê‹{ŽOŒh (Betsumiya Sankei)**

Translated by Roberto Pedreira

Note. Various Japanese expressions are used. For the benefit of readers who do not train judo or don't understand Japanese, a glossary is provided. Recent, some "jiu-jits" teachers have become aware that what they are teaching is actually a form of Kodokan judo and they have acknowledged this by attempting to use Japanese expressions for positions (sometimes incorrectly, and usually mispronounced, but their honorable motivation is recognized and encouraged.) A brief glossary can be found at the end of the translation.

Notes by Roberto are enclosed in brackets, e.g., [    ]

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Introduction, p. 26

In the Second Ultimate Tournament, Gracie Jiu-jitsu left a strong impression on the world by defeating every fighter who stepped up. It's roots are a Japanese judoka named Maeda Mitsuyo [‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese j‘O“cŒõ¢]. So, why is it called "jiu-jitsu" ( ‚È‚º@[_p] ‚È‚Ì‚©). In terms of actual techniques, we search for the relations between Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Japanese jujutsu, and judo.

In this same magazine, the well-known experts Takaoka Hideo (‚‰ª‰p•v), Kōno Yoshinori,(b–ì ‘P‹I), and Yoshida Nobumasa (‹g“cM³) of the Budōyōseikan (•“¹—{³ŠÙ) will give their opinions based on watching videos of the Ultimate Tournament and a Gracie instructional video.** 

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Section 1, p. 27: @Clinching with the opponent, taking him down, submitting him with chokes or joint-techniques [‘ŠŽè‚É‘g‚Ý•t‚¢‚Ä“|‚µ,’÷‚ß‚âŠÖß‹Z‚ÅŽd—¯‚ß‚é]

First, two tactics of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu were put on display in the Ultimate Tournament. It was good that almost no punches or kicks were taken.  Royce, that is, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, appeared to be unprepared to fight with punches or kicks.  But suddenly and quickly Royce clinched and took the opponent to the ground. He used a "tackle" which is a technique similar to the judo morote-gari, and threw the man down. That was his only objective. And then, when the opponent was down, he took the mounted position. If it happens that he [Royce] is on the bottom he will reverse the position and obtain and maintain a superior mounted position. During that time he will try to minimize the possibilities for counter-attack. He [Royce] will grab the sleeve of the dōgi [the opponent's sleeve]. If an opportunity appears, he squeezes the man's neck, or he holds the man's elbow so tightly making him "give up." In most cases when that happens, the reason is that Royce, from the mounted position, unleashes a hail-storm of rapid fire cannon punches to the opponent, shattering his fighting spirit. While administering such punishment to the mounted opponent, Royce waits for any chance to finish the man with a choke or joint technique. That is the basic tactic used by Gracie Jiu-Jitsu in the Ultimate Tournament.

Section 2, p. 27,  Without punching or kicking, the man who controls the striking will win [“Ë‚«‚âR‚è‚Å‚È‚­A‘g‚Ý‘Å‚¿‚𐧂·‚éŽÒ‚ªŸ‚Â].

Next, let's closely analyze the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu strategy in the Ultimate Tournament as a simulation of a "real fight" [ŽÀí]. Facing the antagonist in a combat-ready posture [‘ŠŽè‚Æ—§‚Á‚½‚܂܍\‚¦‚½ó‘Ô‚Å ] the Gracie representative throws fake kicks and punches with no real intention of causing damage, while carefully watching for  any chance to clinch or "tackle" that will be 100% successful. Hardly any real fights [ŽÀÛ‚̐킢] are decided by punches or kicks. The Gracies think that whoever can control the clinch [‘g‚Ý‘Å‚¿] will win the fight. Therefore in a contest they don't exchange genuine punches or kicks. It isn't entirely clear to what extent their jiu-jitsu system incorporates punches or kicks or methods for defending them [Žó‚¯‚Ì‹Zp]. It is said that their jiu-jitsu doesn't include punches or kicks but that doesn't mean they don't practice them. It would be difficult to close the distance on an opponent and take him to the ground, without being able to deal with striking attacks. They don't use striking in their fights but they know how to defend against strikes. How they do this is deeply interesting. Roughly speaking, they don't have a great level of striking abilities. It is unlikely that they would be successful if they attempted to exchange strikes with expert strikers. Gracie jiu-jitsu began as a method for avoiding the ferocious attacks of strikers by getting very close to them.

In the phase of taking the opponent to the ground while avoiding strikes, it is important to very quickly get close to the opponent and take him completely to the ground. Based on watching Gracie Jiu-Jitsu instructional videos, the techniques are not complicated and there aren't many different types of them. Grabbing and holding the leg(s) is one also known as "tackle." While clinching the opponent face-to-face, take him down. From that position [from the clinch] add a  leg-entangling technique [‘«‚𗍂܂ê‚é, a leg hook]. Then slightly slip around to the opponent's back while, as much as possible, using your own leg [or foot] to immobilize the opponent's leg [or legs, or foot, or feet;@‘« can mean leg, legs, foot, or feet, unless specified] and then with a small quick movement throw, take, or drag him down with ura-nage. It could be possible to throw him with a general judo technique but the Gracie jujutsu representatives do it without grabbing the sleeves or collar. From the tight clinch position, they need only very little nage-waza to take the opponent down. They don't rely on techniques that require sleeve or collar grips.  Throws like sukui-nage, koshi-nage, or kubi-nage are the only useful techniques for their purposes. They can be executed even if the opponent is naked from the waist up.

After the opponent is on the ground, what in judo is known as ne-waza begins. For Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, there are many opportunities to take the advantageous mounted position immediately after the take-down. They aim at getting this top position when they execute the take-downs, or leg-trips, or tackles.

When executing an ura-nage,  they might briefly land face up or on their back rather than in the mounted position, they use their near shoulder as a fulcrum, and rotate one time, and expertly arrive at the mounted position.

Also if they are in a kesa-gatame position or a shihō-gatame position, they grab the sleeve and  use the elbow or knee well to very effectively avoid the opponent to make any counter-attacks. It seems that they have researched and practiced this well.

Sometimes it happens that the Gracie representative ends up on the bottom being mounted. In such cases, they have an important technique. The lift the lower body and tilt the mounting person forward. When he is unstable, they reverse the body positions. In addition to that, the way they deal with being on the bottom and fend off chokes and so on, is very interesting. It is unpleasant being mounted because the opponent's weight is pressing you down. However, you are stable on bottom while the man on top is unstable against lateral force. So, when the man on top has both hands on the mounted man's throat, he can be pushed off from the side and then by twisting the body, he will be turned over. The final phase is to control both of the opponent's arms. His lower body will be "killed" and he will not be able to attack effectively. Punches and elbows from the top will undermine his fighting spirit [íˆÓ]. From that position, it will be possible to apply ude-garami, or one of the ude-hishigi type techniques such as jūji-gatame, or ude-gatame, or waki-gatame, or  even hadaka-jime, or okuri-eri-jime, or sankaku-jime. @

In this way, the Gracie Jiu-jitsu techniques used in real fights are extremely limited, and are all judo techniques. The number of techniques used in real fights is small. Ordinary judo methods of both men holding each others' collar and sleeve are not used; punches and kicks are allowed, and striking counter-attacks are permitted while trying to apply throws. The special rules of the Ultimate Tournament are a large reason [for the modifications and adaptations of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu]. 

In the process of trying to throw an opponent with a carrying-throw [katsugi-waza] when collar and sleeves are gripped, both hands are "dead," which is dangerous. Wrestlers and so on are naked so the collar and sleeves can't be depended on which means that the variety of throws that can be used is limited. However, it happened that the man known as "Demon" [‹S], namely Masahiko Kimura [–Ø‘º­•F],defeated Helio Gracie with ude-garami.  In that contest, both men held the other's collar and sleeves. Throws happened. They fought a creditable, ordinary judo match.

Apparently, these days ordinary training focuses on ippon by "give up" and also winning by points. If the opponent's knee touches the mat for two seconds as the result of a throw [“Š‚°]or take-down [“|‚µ]  then two points are scored. In case of "body control,"  three points are scored. In case of mount or "back position with both legs in," four points are scored. Contests are divided into four categories depending on the ability of the fighters, ranging from 6 minutes to 20 minutes.

Tournaments are held in Brazil one time every year. Striking is excluding. Throwing, choking, and joint-locks are permitted. They seem to be somewhat different from the Ultimate Tournament. Here is where we get a glimpse of real Gracie Jiu-jitsu. Before judo was established as a sport, jiu-jitsu had a variety of techniques, that were excluded. In modern judo competitions some techniques are prohibited, such as jumping arm-bar [tobi-tsuki ude jūji gatame], and choking the head or neck directly and other such "rough techniques" [r‹Z] are also naturally among the prohibited techniques. Gracie Jiu-jitsu seems to be more similar to original jiu-jitsu than the judo that is practiced today. We should be able to see that in Gracie Jiu-Jitsu.

End Part 1

Part 2

Section 3 pp. 31-32:  Mitsuyo Maeda's judo style for real fighting [‘O“cŒõ¢‚ÌŽÀí_“¹ƒXƒ^ƒCƒ‹‚»‚Ì‚à‚Ì]

There are undoubtedly many people who have the feeling that current juujutsu and judo are rather different. So, where did that style come from? The roots of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu are said to be heavily influenced by Conde Koma, or Mitsuyo Maeda. Mitsuyo Maeda's accomplishments were introduced in various sources including  ¢ŠE‰¡s_“¹•ŽÒCs. and ¢ŠE‰¡s‘æ“ñV_“¹•ŽÒCs and others (‚È‚Ç ). Inquiring about the story of Maeda's fights everywhere is very interesting.@For example, like this:@hWell, a question was what were the rules of a fight with judo. The first rule was the opponent had to wear a training uniform. And, there was rule for how to surrender. Judo striking techniques and kicking were not used. ...... There were some foreign wrestlers who wrestled naked...... Maeda was not afraid of losing to naked wrestlers but it wasn't easy to win. It was difficult to throw them because they were naked. So the only options were naked strangle (hadakajime) or hugging neck strangle (daki kubishime)

Actually, it seems that there were a lot of matches against naked wrestlers. Maeda almost never lost. With the techniques that could be effectively used, Maeda was exclusively limited to joint techniques kansetsu-waza and chokes to subdue opponents. 

[At this point the author begins quoting one of the unidentified "other" sources [‚È‚Ç], possibly the Gracie marketing materials mentioned in the introduction.] 

It was said that there were fights between boxers and judoka in Tokyo. [here, supposedly quoting Maeda] "Well, a punch scored 5 points and a choke scored 3 points. A total score was tallied after five minutes. That was bullshit [or like a child's game, Ž™‹Y]. It was very different from a boxing match or a judo match. For me a public fight for money was not a child's game. It was a real fight to the finish". Maeda also said [supposedly] "Wrestlers from the developed countries came to defeat and finish Japan. To break their delusion that they would defeat Japan, it was necessary to start over at the beginning training striking and kicking. After 3-4 years of training and we acquire basic competence, it is necessary to train with equipment. Me, now, I use rubber gloves for boxing with a small hole for my thumb to stick out of.....Then I practiced punching and kicking. Then I could grab the sleeve of the hand that was trying to grab me. I think that the training that I mentioned above should be done by every judoka.1 

Of course, judo was based on self-defense and Maeda never forgot that. Actually, the opponents who Maeda usually fought were "wrestlers" [ƒŒƒXƒ‰[  ], who at that time were known as Western sumo wrestlers [¼—l—ÍŽm]. They were usually naked so opportunities to throw them were limited. Therefore the only available option was ground grappling [Q‹Z] and Mr. Maeda focused on that. Fights excluded punching and kicking, so choking and joint-breaking was used to make opponents "give up."  It is reasonable to assume that the rules for boxers were not very much different. Maeda didn't punch or kick.  Being naked, when punches came, the main thing he did was crawl and roll around, and get into a clinch. To be exact, it should be said that Maeda took the judo that he had practiced and reverted it to  jiu-jitsu.

Actually, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu today compared to old jujutsu, it can't be said that the techniques don't have some similarities, but in fact they are almost all judo. There certainly were some jujutsu techniques for holding a downed opponent, but there were very few techniques such as "lock" and chokes while rolling around on the ground. It is better to think of judo "ne-waza" as being developed after the custom of practicing on tatami mats was introduced. Furthermore, Maeda polished these techniques during his real battles with wrestlers and boxers. So the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu that we see now is the heir to what Maeda did.

Section 4, pp. 32-24: Is Gracie Jiu-Jitsu exclusively an antidote to kicking and punching [R‚è‚â•t‚«‚¾‚¯‚ł͉aH‚É‚³‚ê‚邾‚¯]

In the Second Ultimate Tournament, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu representative Royce Gracie demonstrated his overwhelming strength, as mentioned previously. In that Ultimate Tournament, let's verify Gracie Jiu-Jitsu as a "sport."  Surely, it was strongly impressive that the invited karateka, boxers, kickboxers, with their dangerous destructive power, and so on, were handled easily.  However, no matter how intensely strong and powerful they were when they were fighting with their similar techniques against each other in the same competition area, it wasn't a fair fight [because the styles and rules were not comparable, and the rules favored Gracie Jiu-Jitsu.] Speaking of the Ultimate Tournament, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu was a totally unknown style of fighting in the competition area. Royce Gracie demonstrated his strength in only 12 minutes of fighting. On the other hand, what about the challengers? They punched and kicked each other, but they were completely ignorant about Gracie Jiu-Jitsu.  Punching and kicking attacks, that is, in other words offered Gracie Jiu-Jitsu chance to clinch [•t‚¯“ü‚éƒ`ƒ„ƒ“ƒX].  But they had no other way to do than do what they normally did. Royce Gracie could enter into a clinch at a time of his own choice. Some people said that the strikers should throw a knee strike or punch, or elbow, when Royce went for his clinch or tackle. However, Royce Gracie persisted [the danger of knees, punches, and elbows did not prevent Royce from tackling or clinching].

When the take-down or throw was completed, it was all over for every opponent. Royce had an answer for almost anything their tried to do. The handicap was too large. Royce's dominance of the clinch game was impossible to overcome. Sooner or later, the opponent would give up to a choke or lock. With bad luck, the defeated opponent might end up with a blood-covered face resulting from a shower of punches.

Section 5, pp. 34-35: Are traditional Jūjutsu and Aikido useful for fighting?  [ŒÃ—¬_p‚⍇‹C“¹‚͑΍R‚µ“¾‚é‚©].

Gracie jiu-jitsu training is mostly ne-waza. Even when struggling, pushing and pulling, and jostling, the ultimate objective is to apply techniques that will absolutely achieve an advantageous position.

So, how does it stack up against other combat styles [•p]?

Against systems that have only punching and kicking, no matter how often they try to challenge, the aim does not vary.  Which is to wait for a chance to close the gap and clinch, and then to do it. 

What about judoka? In the second tournament, a judoka from Holland fought with Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. He tried to throw the jiu-jitsu representative but he was unsuccessful. Gracie did not have the same intention of throwing his opponent. That wasn't necessary for him. It was enough to get tangled up with him and fall down together. That's what he thought. In their way of thinking, being throw doesn't mean they are losing. Instead, they believe that they are drawing the opponent into a ground fight. A judoka can pin, choke, and lock joints, but under the conditions of no punches or elbows. Although the systems are similar the gap between the levels of their abilities is like the difference between a child and an adult. However, their abilities and quantity of training is not inferior. If they would be prepared to train and have the mentality to resist merciless punching attacks, it seems that they could also have the potential to become strong [in the Ultimate style.] 

What about various old Japanese jūjutsu systems such as Daitōuryū [‘å“Œ—¬] and others that are said to be the sources for Aikido?

Regrettably, no. Technically there is no connection. Most of the training of Daitōuryū and the various old systems was kata practice and most of the techniques were far removed from real fighting applications, and moreover the amount of practice was inadequate. In the case of Aikido, although the training quantity may be abundant, it is far from having serious opposition [resisting opponent] and there are no techniques for grappling with an opponent.

So, what about an opponent who punches and kicks, and ground grapples? It can be said that the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu style that has been seen since the 1960's is the highest form. Roughly, in recent years, the opponents who they have defeated in budō [•“¹] and kakutōgi [Ši“¬‹Z] contests [ŽŽ‡] probably have mercilessly deployed punches and elbows. If it is immune to such violence, for example, it is possible for shooting [shooto], and others, to fight equally [with Gracie Jiu-Jitsu.]2  In reality, the feeling can't be denied that against the strong athlete Delucia [Note. Jason] Delucia, who used similar tactics, Royce, who was proud of his ability to defend himself against punches and kicks, had difficulties winning.3 After all, that must be the key.4 

However, Gracie Jiu-Jitsu's special feature, which is clinch, take-down, and dominate assumes a one-on-one fight. In case of multiple opponents, the strategy of mount and submission and so on, would lead to a beat-down [of the jiu-jitsu stylist.] In the Ultimate Tournament there is only one opponent at a time so there's isn't that to worry about. But for self-defense against two or more opponents it is interesting to consider what kind of training they do.

The objective of the Ultimate Tournament wasn't to continuously defeat other systems, rather it was to boost the fame of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. The Ultimate Tournament revealed the dominance of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. For a long time it was thought that jiu-jitsu was a fearsome thing of chokes and joint techniques and its accomplishments were substantial.  Ten-thousand people [a lot of people, –œl] could verify the efficiency of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. Before the tournament Gracie Jiu-Jitsu was a local type of budō, but after the tournament it skyrocketed into "World Gracie Jiu-Jitsu."

Originally Gracie Jiu-Jitsu was marketed as a self-defense system and a martial art for weak people. But a violent thing called "bari tudo" or "anything is" [‰½‚Å‚à‚ ‚è], excluding only biting [Šš‚݂‚«] and eye-pokes [–ڂ‚Ԃµ] was created. A commercial tournament was promoted featuring Gracie Jiu-Jitsu annihilating representatives of other systems. I can't reconcile these two aspects of Gracie Jiu-Jitsu. After watching the second tournament, I wonder if it isn't because of all of the blood.5 

In the coming years I expect to see, instead of individual fighters beating on each other to prove the superiority of their own style, a movement in the direction of all styles cooperating to perfect a "great energy."6 

@End I

Comments

1. The writer (•Ê‹{ŽOŒh ) understood that jiu-jitsu meant jūjutsu and wrote it correctly as _p.

2. He also understood that Gracie Jiu-Jitsu wasn't anything like jūjutsu [_p]. It was judo ne-waza [Q‹Æ aka Q‹Z] adapted for applications under the conditions of the first two UFCs. He also understood that while Kanō's judo started as mostly Kitō-ryū in 1882, possibly mixed with some Tenjinshinyō-ryū, by the time it had become explicitly labeled as Kodokan Judo in 1889, the jūjutsu elements had been consigned to the kata(s), reference techniques, and prohibited techniques (see Craze 1 for details.) But none of these were or are present in Gracie Jiu-Jitsu.

3. The author used available sources for the history section. But the available sources in 1994 were few and highly unreliable.  Maeda was not a vale tudo fighter, did not fight boxers, and did not design or train with UFC gloves.  He also did not teach Carlos Gracie or any other Gracie the style of fighting that Royce used in UFC 1 and UFC 2. (In fact he didn't teach Carlos Gracie or his brothers at all.) See Myths about Mitsuyo Maeda.

4. The author partly understood why the Ultimate Tournament took place. That is, from Rorion Gracie's point of view. At least that's what Rorion said. It's less certain that the masterminds behind the UFC were motivated primarily to promote the Gracie Family.

5. The author's prediction about what would happen turned out to be correct. The relatively no rules, no time-limits, no weight-classes, style-versus-style format quickly degenerated into a conventional commercial format (kickboxing + wrestling + submissions, with lots of rules and gimmicks to attract viewers.) 

@Translation Notes

Note. A macron over a vowel indicates a long vowel, for example ō is twice as long as o, and words are distinguished by such differences in length.

Most words in Japanese can be written in various combinations of kanji and the two kana systems, depending on what the writer believes will be most comprehensible to readers, or for other reasons.

"Jiu-jitsu" is written throughout as _p, pronounced jū-jutsu ("jiu-jitsu" does not refer to a martial arts style in Japanese).

"Mount" and "mounted position" are written ”næ‚èó‘Ô, pronounced uma-nori jōtai. 

The words are variously written in noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial forms as they occurred in the article (most words can be written in various ways).@

Notes

**See Top Misconceptions about Gracie Jiu-Jitsu (forthcoming). 

1. No source is cited for these statements supposedly by Maeda. Maeda said no such things in the two books that were mentioned, which are discussed extensively in Craze 1 and Craze 2)

2. By immune to violence the writer means, without unlimited striking.

3. Jason Delucia (who later fought in Pancrase).

4. The author seems to mean fighting fire with fire, resisting jiu-jitsu with jiu-jitsu, or at least a somewhat similar ground grappling style. 

5. By "self-defense" [Œìgp] and "martial art for weak people" [Žã‚¢‚à‚Ì‚Ì•p] the writer seems to have something like Aikido in mind.

6. By "great energy, ‘å‚«‚ȃGƒlƒ‹ƒM[, the writer means a hybrid style in which all participants are basically playing by the same rules with the same resources.  

Glossary

Waza (can be written ‹Z or ‹Æ) technique, trick 

Uma-nori jōtai ”næ‚èó‘Ô - horse riding position (the judo name is tate-shihō-gatame, gatame, —§‚ÄŽl•ûŒÅ‚ß)

Katsugi-waza Katsugi-waza   (katsugu ’S‚® = carry on shoulder)

nage-waza, “Š‚°‹Z -throwing technique

shime-waza@’÷‚ß‹Z-choke

kansetsu-waza ŠÖß‹Z-joint-lock

ura-nage — “Š‚°-back-throw

kesa-gatame ŒU¾ŒÅ‚ß -scarf hold

shihō-gatame Žl•ûŒÅ‚ß -four corner hold

ude-garami ˜r‚ª‚ç‚Ý, also written ˜r—‚Ýarm-entanglement, and in some older books as ãgand ãn.

ude-hishigi ˜rf‚¬-arm-destruction

jūji-gatame \ŽšŒÅ‚ß -figure 10 hold

ude-gatame ˜rŒÅ‚ß -arm hold

moro-te-gari ‚à‚ë‚ÄŠ ‚è -two hand reap (moro can‘o, which can also be pronounced sō, and more-te can be written ‘oŽè. In this article it is written ‚à‚ë‚Ä.  

waki-gatame ˜eŒÅ‚ß -separated arm hold

hadaka-jime —‡’÷‚ß -naked choke

okuri-eri-jime ‘—‚è‹Ý’÷‚ß -pulling-collar-choke

kumi-uchi [‘g‚Ý‘Å‚¿] -clinch, grappling, tie-up

sankaku-jime ŽOŠp’÷‚ß -triangle choke @

sukui-nage ‹d‚¢“Š‚°-scooping throw 

koshi-nage ˜“Š‚°-hip throw

kubi-nage Žñ“Š‚°-neck throw (hip throw with the neck as a handle)

Ashi wo kakae-komu ‘«‚ð•ø‚¦ž‚Þ -tackle, also written phonetically as ƒ^ƒbƒNƒ‹ (pronounced takkuru)

Kahanshin wa korosare ashi de  ‰º”¼g‚ÍŽE‚³‚ê‘«‚Ł@- killing (neutralizing) the lower body with the legs

Semami-komu ‘Ì‚ð‹·‚Ýž‚Þ -straddling

Tobi-tsuki-jūji-gatame@”ò‚т‚«˜r\ŽšŒÅ‚ß -jumping (or flying) arm-lock

Ashi wo karamareru ‘«‚𗍂܂ê‚é@-holding, entangling, hooking the legs (garami is the noun form of karamu and karamaru, karamareru is the causative form). See ude-garami above. 

Kumi-tsuku  ‘g‚Ý•t‚­@-grapple, clinch@kumi-tsuki ‘g‚Ý•t‚«is the noun form

Taosu  “|‚· -knock down, take down, put down, defeat, etc

Taoshi “|‚µ@-noun form of taosu

Ara-waza@r‹Æ -rough techniques

Jissen ŽÀí -real fight (what 'real' means is context dependent) 

Sen'i íˆÓ -fighting spirit (Japanese had lots of words for 'fighting spirit')

Ashi ‘« -one of several words that can mean leg, legs, foot, or feet (Japanese doesn't have obligatory number-marking, so unless it is specified, the interpretation depends on context, or is simply left vague). There are also words for particular part of legs and feet. 

Dōgi  “¹’…, also “¹ˆß -training clothes ("gi" is not an independent word)

Senpō í–@@-tactics

Tsuki ya Keri “Ë‚«‚âR‚è -punching and/or kicking

hizakeri  •GR‚è@- knee strike (knee kick)

Keri ya Tsuki   R‚è‚â“Ë‚« -kick and/or punch

Panchi ƒpƒ“ƒ` -punch 

Ate ya Keri “–‚Ä‚âR‚è -strike and/or kick

gibuappu ƒMƒuƒAƒbƒv@-Give up, tap out

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As always, thanks to ‹ß“¡—mŽq for clarifying numerous obscure points.

(c) 2020 Roberto Pedreira. All rights reserved.

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