GTR Archives 2000-2020

@

*

@*

*

*

@

*

*

@

@

@

@

@

@

Craze 2@

The Life and Times of Jiu-Jitsu 

1905-1914

By Roberto Pedreira

Available October 14, 2019 (JST)

@

In January 1905, Mitsuyo Maeda,1 Kodokan 4-dan, and Prof. Tsunejiro Tomita 6-dan, arrived in New York by way of San Francisco and began attempting to plant the seeds of judo in the USA. They were following in the footsteps of Prof. Yoshitsugu Yamashita, Kodokan 7-dan, teacher of the American president Theodore Roosevelt, and various other professors, both legitimate and bogus. They were sooner or later joined by other Kodokan representatives, (acting on their own behalf), Sumi Yoshiharu 2-dan, Akitaro Ono 3-dan, Tokugoro Ito 4-dan, and Nobushiro (aka Shinshiro) Satake 4-dan.2 Their results were small compared to those of jiu-jitsu promoters whose backgrounds were questionable at best, namely Irving Hancock, Katsukuma Higashi, and Yae Kichi Yabe.3  On the other side of the pond, Sadakazu Uyenishi, Yukio Tani, Taro Miyake, and Ernest Régnier, were exposing the public to jiu-jitsu in England, Wales, Scotland, France, Spain and Portugal. Jiu-jitsu representatives and self-proclaimed champions soon emerged in Australia and New Zealand.

Thanks to the endorsement of the American president, jiu-jitsu got off to a strong start. What was jiu-jitsu? Between 1905 and 1914 jiu-jitsu referred to (1) Kodokan judo (2) several traditional jūjutsu styles (most similar to, associated with, or inspired by Kodokan judo), (3) a made-up hodge-podge of myths and quasi-wrestling movements invented by a handful of unprincipled but prolific hustlers, (4) stage wrestling contests conducted according to "jiu-jitsu" rules, and (5) anything else anyone wanted it to mean. 

Wrestlers quickly pushed back. Boxers looked on mostly from the side lines but occasionally threw their hats in the ring, with mixed results. Politicians, military, and law enforcement agencies were either hostile, ambivalent, or fickle. Writers and journalists played both sides of the fence. Hustlers and con artists of all varieties left no stone unturned in their efforts to separate suckers from their money.   

By fall of 1914 Maeda was in Brazil. He settled in the North, in Belém do Pará, where he taught a weightlifter named Jacyntho Ferro, who taught Carlos Gracie and Donato Pires dos Reis, among others. The rest is history.

Craze 2 covers every verifiably relevant incident, episode, fight, scandal, controversy,  triumph, and disaster that occurred between January 1, 1905 and the end of 1914, in the USA, England, Wales, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Australia and a few other countries. It is not exclusively about Mitsuyo Maeda but because Maeda is the narrative link between old jiu-jitsu and the currently popular form known as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Maeda receives special attention. His career in America, England, Belgium, Spain, Cuba,  and Guatemala Peru, Argentina, and Brazil are described in more or less detail as permitted by the quality and quantity of the most reliable source materials currently available. All documented fights of all jiu-jitsu fighters are covered and listed in a comprehensive appendix. Sources are critically assessed and full documentation is provided.

Note that most of the main characters had long careers and are discussed in multiple chapters.

Craze 2 is 149, 978 words and 600 pages.

Contents

Introduction: What happened and why it happened when, where and how it did.

Chapter 1, 1905: Activities and fights of  Yae Kichi Yabe, Irving Hancock, Prof. Maeda (in America), Prof. Tomita, Prof. Yamashita, Sumi Yoshiharu, Fukuoka Shotarō, Yukio Tani, Taro Miyake, Akitaro Ono, Katsukuma Higashi, Ernest Régnier, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 2, 1906: Activities and fights of Prof. Maeda (in America), Prof. Tomita, Prof. Yamashita, Yukio Tani, Taro Miyake, Akitaro Ono, Sadakazu Uyenishi, Prof. Soyer,  Prof. Rampazzi, Jean Witzler, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 3, 1907: Activities and fights of Prof. Maeda (in England), Akitaro Ono, Leopold McLaglen, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 4, 1908: Activities and fights of Maeda (in England, Belgium, Spain), Akitaro Ono, J. Hirano, Taro Miyake, Sadakazu Uyenishi, Yukio Tani, Mitsuka, Leopold McLaglen, Tano Matsuda, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 5, 1909: Activities and fights of Maeda, Satake, Fokura, Yasso, in Cuba and Mexico, Tokugoro Ito,  Shosha Yokoyama, Young Togo, Leopold McLaglen, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 10, 1910: Activities and fights of Maeda, Satake, Tokugoro Ito, MacLaglen, Ryugoro Shima, Kiyo Kameda, Prof. Stevenson, Ryo Fukuta, Will Bingham, Sadakazu Uyenishi, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 11, 1911: Activities and fights of Fokura, Taro Miyake, Tokugoro Ito, Will Bingham, Ryugoro Shima, Kiyo Kameda, Prof. Stevenson, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, restlers and boxers.

Chapter 12, 1912: Activities and fights of Mitsuyo Maeda, Ono, Iwagatani, George Kogo, Taro Miyake, Yukio Tani, Adzuma Yama, Zara Kiri, Will Bingham, Ryugoro Shima, Kiyo Kameda, Prof. Stevenson, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 13, 1913: Activities and fights of Mitsuyo Maeda, Akiyama, Iwagatani, Zara Kiki, Taro Miyake, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Chapter 14, 1914: Activities and fights of Mitsuyo Maeda, Taro Miyake, Will Bingham, John Mack, Ryugoro Shima, Raku Kato, and others including numerous legendary and obscure jiu-jitsu fighters, wrestlers and boxers.

Appendix 1: How Jūjutsu became Judo in 1907

Appendix 2: Fights 1905-1914

Notes

References

Author Bio

Acknowledgements

Index

Illustrations@(about 40-44)

@

@

Notes

1. Maeda's name was not Mitsuyo when he first arrived in the USA and he did not use that name during his two years in the USA. He was generally referred to as either Prof. Maeda or E. Maeda. He changed it to Mitsuyo at around the time he moved to England. 

2. Japanese names are written in the Western style above. In Japanese the family name comes first, and long vowels are indicated in various romanization systems. For example (_ can be romanized as jūdō, or jûdô, or juudou, or simply judo. The name of the most significant  person in jiu-jitsu history is written Ô[ܘY. It is most commonly romanized as Kanō Jigorō. It is typically written in English as Jigoro Kano (even Kodokan writes it as Jigoro Kano). In Craze 1 and Craze 2 Japanese names are written in either the Japanese style or the Western style (or both) depending on the context. In addition many Japanese names could be pronounced in multiple ways, some could be written in various ways, and very often printers did not know either the pronunciation or the particular written form used by the individual in question, hence confusion was common.

3. In addition to, and even before Hancock and Higashi,  there was another very important early influence, named John J. O'Brien, who was President Roosevelt's first jiu-jitsu teacher. His background was legit in the sense that he had verifiably lived in Japan and studied jiu-jitsu. He is introduced in Craze 1 and throughout Craze 2. Other entrepreneurs, including Jigoro Kano (Ô[ܘY) and Edward Barton-Wright are discussed in detail in Craze 1.

 

@

(c) 2019, Roberto Pedreira. All rights reserved.

@

@

GTR Archives 2000-2020

@