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Posted October 22, 2019 (JST)

Updated November 6, 2919 (JST)

Top 20 Myths about Mitsuyo Maeda

 (aka Conde Koma)

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@By Roberto Pedreira

Rorion Gracie reintroduced jiu-jitsu to the world partly by skillfully hyping his dad, Helio Gracie (for four early examples, see here, here, here, and here). He was criticized for favoring his dad at the expense of his uncle Carlos (most volubly by Reyla Gracie). And by Eduardo Pereira and others for ignoring Carlson, Robson, and numerous other legends. But what Rorion did was neither unusual nor new. Hype and obfuscation have always been part of the business of martial arts, and jiu-jitsu in particular. The founder of Kodokan Judo, and indirectly BJJ, Jigoro Kano (‰Ã”[–èŒÜ˜Y) himself pointed it out in 1889 and he wasn't immune to its attractions (here). In fact, Kano innovated many of the methods that are still used today to promote martial arts. Moreover, Kano's own jûjutsu/judo odyssey began when he was attracted by choreographed martial arts shows not unlike the pro-wrestling and jiu-jitsu stage shows that followed. Possibly without even realizing, Rorion was following in the footsteps of the ultimate "Asian master". The methods were tried, they were true. And as we can see, they worked and are still working (here).

Not exactly by design, the Gracies, and even more so, their followers, over-hyped a Kodokan judoka named Mitsuyo Maeda (aka Conde Koma), who, they say, taught Carlos Gracie "real jiu-jitsu" which he, Carlos, improved and Brazilianized. Maeda's jiu-jitsu, although real, was not real enough for Carlos Gracie. Either Maeda neglected to teach his best student (according to Carlos, himself), about leverage, or Carlos forgot about it when he Brazilianized and improved jiu-jitsu. Along came Carlos' younger brother Helio, who added the leverage that had been missing. 

Actually the Gracies have had relatively little to say about Maeda. None of them met him, with the possible but by no means certain exception of Carlos, who was an unreliable source of information about virtually anything and everything. Most of the misinformation floating around the internet and in popular UFC-inspired mass-market books about Maeda comes from other people, including researchers, martial arts teachers, academy owners, and anonymous forum posters. Following are the 18 Top Myths about Mitsuyo Maeda (for more, and documentation see Craze 1 and Craze 2).

Note. Long vowels are indicated with a circumflex or macron. Japanese names and some familiar terms are written as they are written by Kodokan (for example, judo, Kodokan, Jigoro Kano). Names are written in the western style when written alphabetically; in Japanese style, family name first, when written in kanji (example: Mitsuyo Maeda versus ‘O“cŒõ¢).

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Myth 1. Maeda's name was Mayeda, or Esai Maeda.

Fact: There is much misinformation about Maeda's name. Part of it is due to the fact that spelling was unstandardized at the time, people did not know how to write or pronounce Japanese words or names; Japanese people had various names and changed them from time to time; and it is sometimes impossible to know how a Japanese person's name (written in kanji characters) is pronounced unless they tell you. Japanese readers were only slightly less confused than foreigners. Almost everyone's name was pronounced or written incorrectly at various times, including even Jigoro Kano's name and the name of his training facility and system, Kodokan.

Maeda's family name was written with two kanji characters: ‘O“c. This is pronounced with two syllables (or mora), approximately like my-da (the a in da pronounced like the e in the). His personal name before leaving  Japan was written ‰p¢ pronounced Hideyo (which can be but isn't pronounced Eise). While in America and just before leaving for England he legally changed it to Mitsuyo, written Œõ¢

Kohyama Norio speculates that Maeda changed his name in July 1905 because he didn't want to be confused with the famous Japanese medical researcher Noguchi Hideyo (–ìŒû‰p¢) who was also in New York at that time. Kohyama doesn't offer any evidence but simply asserts that it "can be supposed" (l‚¦‚ç‚ê‚é).

It may seem like academic hair-splitting. It's not. It tells us that the speaker or writer got the information second or third hand and is recycling myths and misinformation. (Unfortunately, reading Japanese is no guarantee of getting accurate information, with some exceptions.)

Maeda used various other ring names over the years, including Yamato Maida and Conde Koma, all mixed and spelled in a wide variety of ways (such as Yamato Koma, among many others). He also adopted the name Octavio (aka Otavio) in Brazil. In fact, Maeda's name on his gravestone in Belém is spelled "Mayeda" (Octavio Mitsuyo Mayeda) while his wife's name (buried with him) is spelled "Maeda" (May Maeda Koma).

Myth 2. Maeda taught Carlos Gracie.

Fact: Carlos took some lessons from Jacyntho Ferro. Jacyntho Ferro was one of Maeda's students. There is no evidence that Carlos ever met Maeda. Carlos lineage therefore goes back to Maeda via Jacyntho Ferro. By the same token, it goes back to Kano. By the same token, everyone who trains jiu-jitsu or ever did, has a lineage that goes back to Kano. And even farther because Kano also had numerous teachers (although he was certified by only one, see Craze 1 chapter 5 for details and documentation). A different question is who certified Carlos Gracie. Taking lessons from someone and being certified by them are entirely different things. There is no evidence that anyone (who was qualified to do so) ever certified Carlos Gracie or vouched for his knowledge of or abilities in "jiu-jitsu" (excluding Helio, who was not a neutral source, and whose opinions about Carlos were contradictory and ever-changing).

Myth 3. Carlos was Maeda's prize pupil.

Fact: So Carlos claimed (but denied by Rorion, Helio, Donato Pires dos Reis, among others). See # 1 above and Choque 1, Choque 3, and Gracie 2008).

Myth 4. Maeda taught Helio Gracie. So says Erik Paulson. Erik is a knowledgeable teacher and former student of Yori Nakamura, Rickson Gracie, and Rigan Machado; an experienced competitor; a Hollywood movie stuntman/actor; and as of recently, the author of a book about martial arts history. Also so says Joe Rogan. Joe is a popular internet talk-show host. According to Joe, "Count Mayeda...who...he came to Brazil and taught Carlos and Rorion and, and [sic] Helio, well, mostly Helio." 

Fact: Helio never trained with Maeda. Helio always denied that he even met Maeda. He never even heard of jiu-jitsu or Maeda until sometime after 1929, he claimed. See for examples Choque 2, Choque 3, here, here, and here.

Fact 5. Maeda was a "jiu-jitsu practitioner". Again, according to Erik Paulson, but also many others. 

Fact:  Maeda was not a jiu-jitsu practitioner. Maeda was a Kodokan judoka. He never practiced jiu-jitsu (or more correctly, jûjutsu) other than the jûjutsu that was contained in Kodokan judo. The first person in the Western world who used the word "jiu-jitsu" was a Japanese student of Kano who was discussing Kodokan judo (he was explicit about that). (Actually an editor was responsible for the misspelling). Moreover,  Kodokan Judo was not  a "style". (Although some Japanese authorities referred to the jûjutsu component of Kodokan judo as Kanô ryû). It was a system. The system included techniques from several jujutsu (_p) styles (—¬) and various other forms of grappling (including sumo and Western wrestling styles). The only jûjutsu system Maeda knew was the amalgam that comprised Kodokan judo's technical component. What Carlos learned from Jacyntho Ferro was judo. (See Choque 1 chp. 9, and here and here).

Erik may be using the word "jiu-jitsu" to mean ground grappling (as many people do these days). But Maeda did not know or care much about ground grappling. It didn't interest him and he didn't bother to train it in Japan, according to himself (see Craze 2 for details and documentation). 

(This is a simplified summary. The relationships between jûjuitsu, jiu-jitsu, and judo were complicated. Almost everyone was either confused or linguistically inconsistent. See Craze 1 and Craze 2 for details and documentation regarding all points mentioned above.) 

Myth 6. Maeda had over 1,000 matches. So says Erik Paulson along with many other people. According to one Japanese historian, Maeda had h2,000 fights without any losses" ["“ñ‚O‚O‚O‰ñí‚¢•s”s‚ðŒÖ‚éh] 

Fact: Maeda's matches consisted of a handful of catch as catch can contests, in which he was somewhat successful (see Craze 2 for details). He also had "matches" against people who attended his demonstrations. Most of his matches were prepared exhibitions disguised as authentic battles, against his own group of judoka, and with members of groups of professional wrestlers (who worked for Maeda's own employers), all in the context of stage shows. Maeda never pretended (to his friends in Japan) that these were anything other than fake fights. He also had matches (if you can call them that) against curious, untrained spectators at his shows, always under very tightly specific conditions with numerous restrictions. Finally he had a few matches, apparently genuine, with people who had some athletic abilities, but no judo experience. For example, with boxers who were not permitted to punch, and so on. They were in every case or almost every case, all smaller than Maeda (there were not many of these type of matches). Maeda also had a few matches with curious practitioners of other grappling styles. Maeda personally regarded them as "training" (ŒmŒÃ)rather than fights@(Ÿ•‰). He also had a few encounters (he said) with jiu-jitsu or judo wannabes, people who overestimated their abilities after reading a book, watching a show, or taking a few privates. So, using a very loose definition of "match" that includes private sparring sessions with newbies and faked wrestling shows, Maeda had many. However based on his fights that can be verified (see Craze 1 appendix 8, Craze 2 appendix 2, and Choque 1 appendix 2), the number of his legit fights could be counted one three or four hands and even some of those are questionable.   

The idea that Maeda had thousands of fights and victories originated with Susukida Zaun in 1912 (Susukida 1912-a; 1912-b). It was nothing more than speculation, based on the unsupported assumption that Maeda must be fighting constantly, 2-3 fights every night, and seldom or never losing (even though Susukida's own evidence contradicts his assumption). Evidence now shows clearly that Maeda did not have challengers from the audience on most nights, and most of his "fights" were either with his friends or fellow performers.    

To be perfectly clear, Maeda had some legitimate matches (where there were rules specifying how to win) and some quasi-matches (without rules specifying how to win, which Maeda himself regarded as "training" rather than fighting). These were exceptions to his usual schedule of public exhibitions and show matches. (Many examples of all varieties of Maeda's public matches (etc.) are described with documentation in Craze 2).

Myth 7. Maeda taught the Russian police.

Fact: Maeda did not teach the Russian police and did not go to Russia. When Maeda needed a paying job, after Spain, he considered various destinations including Russia, but decided to go to Cuba instead. He never went to Russia. He was planning to go back to Japan via Europe after he finished his South America visit. But he never left Brazil except for a series of stage performances in Cuba in 1921. 

Myth 8. Maeda was a catch wrestler. According to Erik Paulson and others.

Fact: Maeda competed in a catch as catch can wrestling tournament in 1908 and one other catch match a few months later. He was moderately successful (see Craze 2, chapter 4). Maeda did not consider that competing in a handful of catch matches in 1908 made him a catch wrestler. He was both a Kodokan judoka and a professional wrestler. Being a professional wrestler, to Maeda, meant entertaining the public. Judo was an identity, pro wrestling was a job. He admired catch wrestlers' skills (he said) and was not averse to learning what he could that was useful for his stage shows for example pinning, because his judo newaza was weak (he said) 

Myth 9. Maeda was a vale tudo fighter.

Fact: Maeda never had a vale tudo fight. He talked about fighting famous boxers, such as Tommy Burns, James J. Jeffries, and Jack Johnson, but didn't fight them. He was confident (he said) that he would win. He was also confident (he said) that he could win against knives and guns. But this was just talk. None of it happened. Maeda faced (he said) a few boxers. By "boxers" he meant they wore gloves and were free to try to swing at him. He did not mention many details about when, where, and who, and none of the alleged encounters can be confirmed. In some cases, Maeda himself said the "boxers" were beginners with minimal skills at best. In other cases, their skills were not sufficient for them to gain a name in the boxing world.

The legend of Maeda as a vale tudo fighter seems to have been invented (or if not, then most widely disseminated) by a book reviewer named Mark Gorsuch. It was then borrowed by Reila Gracie (without citing Mark Gorsuch) and recycled. According to Mark Gorsuch  "Maedafs strategy in an anything goes fight was to set his opponent up with an elbow or low kick. He would then go in for a throw and finish his opponent with a choke or joint lockh.  He cited no evidence for this claim because there is no evidence. There is no evidence because it didn't happen. 

But Reila Gracie must have thought that Mark Gorsuch found evidence in the book he was reviewing, Norio Kohyama's 1997 book  ƒ‰ƒCƒIƒ“‚Ì–²[[ƒRƒ“ƒfƒRƒ}‘O“cŒõ¢“`. According to Reyla, "His [Maeda's] style was aggressive. He would use kicks and punches to bring his opponent to the ground, and then quickly finish him with a 'lock' or choke" ( gSeu estilo ao lutar era agressivo\usava chutes e soccos para lever o adversario ao solo, onde rapidamente o finalizava com uma chave ou um estrangulamentoh (Gracie, Reila,  2008, p. 37; Carlos Gracie: O Criador de uma Dinastia).  For a synopsis/commentary on Reila's book, see Here.

Mark Gorsuch didn't get this from Kohyama's book because it isn't in Kohyama's book. He also didn't get it from Gracies in Action 1, or Pat Jordan's Playboy article, or Gracies in Action 2.  Then where did he get it?

Back in the day, people watched the UFC and saw punches and low kicks, followed up by judo techniques such as guard and mount positions, armlocks, and chokes (all judo positions and techniques). Fans were told that the Gracies learned from Maeda. The Gracies must have learned about punches and kicks from Maeda. Therefore, Maeda must have taught them. Therefore it must have been a feature of his "style" or "strategy". It all fit (in fact, it was like a typical conspiracy theory, minus the conspiracy). 

There's a hole in the theory. All of Conde Komafs matches were fought without striking. His style did not include elbows, punches or kicks. Mitsuyo Maeda wasn't a vale tudo fighter.

Myth 10.  Maeda fought John Piening, aka the "Butcher Boy".

Fact: So says Jose Cairus (2011, p. 119 note 43). John Piening was a well-known New York-based 28 year old (in 1905) Greco-Roman wrestler whose ring-name was "Brooklyn Butcher Boy" or just "Butcher Boy". 

The match was a best 2 of 3 falls professional match. Japanese authors refer to Butcher Boy (or Brooklyn Butcher Boy) not John Piening. Nevertheless, they described the fight as brutal. Butcher Boy put up a ferocious fight but Maeda, they said, totally dominated and won the first two falls (hence the fight). Some writers (including Raisuke Kudô) described Butcher Boy trying to punch Maeda.  

The original source of the information was Susukida 1912-a (retold with some tweaks in 1943). Susukida claimed that his source was Maeda himself (Maeda, or someone, sent an American news article that Susukida misinterpreted). (Some of Maeda's reports from overseas were published in Japanese magazines between 1909 and 1911). Subsequent writers over the years borrowed from Susukida (unavoidably, as it was the only source) and tended to exaggerate Butcher Boy's size. The original size estimates also came from Susukida 1912-a. (To spell it out, there are not ten different independent sources, rather there is one source, which happens to be inaccurate. The primary source, which was not cited, was also inaccurate; it is cited in Craze 2).

Author

Date

BB Wt.

BB Ht.

MM Wt.

MM Ht.

Susukida

1912-a

248.1 lb

6' +

148.9 lb

5' 4"

Susukida

1943

248.1 lb.

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Kudô

1972

250 lb

6'

146 lb

5' 2"

Kojima

1983

330 lb

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138.6 lb

5' 5"

Yokota 

1996

330 lb

180 cm

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Kohyama

1997

248.1lb

180 cm

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Marushima

1997

248.6 lb

182 cm

149.6 lb

5' 5"

Takahashi

1999

330 lb

187 cm

165 lb

5' 5"

Matsunami

2002

242 lb

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Tanigami 2012 248.6 lb 182 cm  @ @

Judo Daijiten

1999

140.8 lb

5' 5"

Note. BB = Butcher Boy; MM = Mitsuyo Maeda. The weights and heights were provided variably in kilograms, pounds, kan (ŠÑ@= 8.27 lb), kin (‹Ò = 1.323 lb), shaku (ŽÚ = 0.995 feet),  and sun (¡= 1.193 inches). Some authors provided measurements in several forms with approximate and sometimes inaccurate equivalents. The works referenced above can be found here. (Judo Daijiten does not mention a Butch Boy fight). According to Judo Daijiten 1999, citing Oimatsu 1976 (republished in 1979), Maeda was 164 cm tall and weighed 64 kg (140. 8 lb) between 1897 and 1899 (Oimatsu may have been drawing on Susukida's estimates). Maeda's weight according to Judo Daijiten is provided for reference. Undoubtedly he would have put on a few pounds by 1905.

There are several problems with the story of Maeda versus John Butcher Boy Piening. The first is that John Piening weighed or wrestled at 170 to 175 lb, not 248 to 330 lb. The second is that John Piening was 3,000 miles away on the night the fight was scheduled to take place. The third problem is that Maeda's scheduled opponent was not John Piening, or anyone else named Butcher Boy, but instead a 130 lb wannabe catch as catch can wrestler named Oscar Dresedorf, whose nick-name was not "Butcher Boy".  The best evidence available indicates that either this fight did not happen, or if it did was too insignificant to report (details and documentation in Craze 2).

Piening, like most wrestlers, was skeptical about jiu-jitsu. Maeda was not a high-profile opponent. In fact, in the New York pro wrestling world in 1905 he was nobody. He had no resume as a professional wrestler. Piening, already famous in New York, had nothing to gain by challenging Maeda so he didn't. Instead he challenged Katsukuma Higashi, who was famous. That fight didn't happen either.

Myth 11. Maeda fought a boxing-wrestling champion named Mayer in 1905 and demolished him.

Fact: Most of the same authors who erroneously claim that Maeda fought Butcher Boy also claim that in late August 1905, or around then, he fought an 83 kg wrestling-boxing champion from Boston named Mayer (ƒ}[ƒ„ which could be Maia, Meier, Mayer, Meyer, or others). As with Butcher Boy, this is based on Susukida's original story and are unconfirmed and improbable.@

Myth 12. Maeda taught or met the American President Theodore Roosevelt or fought an enormous American wrestler in his presence in the White House.

Fact: It was mentioned in Mark Gorsuch review's of Kohyama (above). Mark Gorsuch did not claim that it happened, only that John Stevens claimed it in Three Budo Masters. John Stevens did not provide sources and was probably relying on Raisuke Kudôs book. But Raisuke Kudo was incorrect.  Maeda did not meet the President or teach him and didn't fight anyone in the White House. Raisuke Kudô was mixing up several other incidents that did happen. But neither one involved Maeda. 

Myth 13: Maeda taught the Gracies the secrets of real fighting (according to Helio himself, echoed by Rorion and Reila.)

Fact:  Maeda may have been an expert at real fighting (as opposed to judo), but there is no evidence of that from his stage and competition career. He described getting into a brawl with five policemen in Boston in 1906 but aspects of the account leave room for doubt as to its accuracy (source). Whatever the Gracie brothers knew about real fighting and wherever they learned, it didn't come from Maeda. Oddly, the only real fighting technique Helio used in the ring, apart from judo techniques, was the kick to the throat that he delivered to Dudú in 1937 (see Choque 1, chapter 17).

Myth 14: Mitsuyo Maeda "Conde Koma" introduced Jiu-jitsu to Brazil.

Fact: Maeda was not the first. The first was Sada Miyako (aka Miaco, aka Miako, who arrived in Rio under mysterious circumstances on December 31, 1908, along with a female partner, who performed with him. His actual training background if any was never mentioned and is still unknown. Nevertheless, Sada Miyako taught a general sportsman/capoeira expert named Mario Aleixo (according to Aleixo himself without offering any proof).  Later Aleixo taught jiu-jitsu in Rio, even before Maeda arrived, sometimes collaborating with a Japanese instructor. Amateur jiu-jitsu matches were held in late 1909  (see Choque 1, chp. 7). 

Myth 15.@Maeda was the World Jiu-Jitsu champion.

Fact: There was no such thing. Yet many people claimed the title of world jiu-jitsu champion (see Craze 2 for numerous examples). Maeda's particular claim came in Cuba when he and his partner Satake 4-dan  put on series of fake matches to decide who was the world champion. Maeda "won". (Both Maeda and Satake admitted the matches were fake). They repeated the same charade in Mexico a year later.

Myth 16. Maeda's judo teacher was Yokoyama Sakujirō (‰¡ŽRìŽŸ˜Y).

Fact: Maeda's first judo teacher was a Kodokan shodan (‰’i) named Iwazaki ((Šâè). He was also instructed by Kawahara Yatarō (ìŒ´–푾˜Y) and Washio (˜h”ö),  and a nidan (“ñ’i) named Isoya (ˆé’J)@

Myth 17. Maeda's judo teacher was Prof. Tomita. 

Fact: Prof. Tomita out-ranked Maeda by two dan, and was older (by about 13 years) and Maeda was Tomita's demonstration uke for a year in America. Kodokan and other Japanese sources do not mention Tomita as being Maeda's teacher. (Prof. Tomita was Tomita Tsunejirō, •x“cíŽŸ˜Y; for details about Prof. Tomita see Craze 1 chapter 5, and Craze 2).

Myth 18. Maeda was a Japanese spy.

Fact: Maeda was accused of being a Japanese spy in Cuba during his first visit in December 1908 to July 1909, by an anti-Japan American-owned English language newspaper (according to Maeda via Susukida Zaun 1912-a, pp. 416-418). No evidence was offered. Maeda denied it. He was a wrestler, not a spy, he said. It is true that Japan had agents posted in countries of interest and recruited both Japanese nationals and foreigners to help gather intelligence and influence public opinion (see Craze 1). It is true that Maeda had contacts with Japanese diplomats and agents in some places (not necessarily Cuba, see Craze 2). It is true that some Japanese diplomats and agents had trained at Kodokan. However, Maeda's value to Japan's military and foreign ministry was in creating a positive impression of Japan through his judo teaching and wrestling shows (as he emphasized in his letters to Japan). He may have provided opinions and impressions, when asked on social occasions, as anyone else could have. That was hardly a big deal considering the access to the highest levels of American government and military that judo men had already enjoyed. So Maeda possibly was, but probably was not a spy in any sense of that word. 

Myth 19. Maeda taught Rorion Gracie. According to Joe Rogan (see # 4 above).

Fact: Maeda did not teach Rorion. Maeda died in 1941. Rorion was born in 1952. (We get it; Joe is not a historian, he is simply reflecting common myths and misconceptions, while at the same time spreading them among his vast audience of MMA fans.)

Myth 20. Maeda knew aikido. According to aikido practitioner and Hollywood movie actor (Fight Club) Edward Norton: "He [Maeda] knew aikido and jiu-jitsu, offered to teach his [ Gastão Gracie's] sons." 

Fact: Maeda left Japan (and never returned) before aikido was invented. Maeda did not know aikido and the only "jiu-jitsu" he knew was the technical component of Kodokan judo. See Craze 1 chapter 5. (We get it; Edward Norton is an actor, not a historian. See # 19.)

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For more documented information about Mitsuyo Maeda see Choque 1, Craze 1, Craze 2. and Craze 3 (forthcoming 2020).

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@Notes

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How Kano constructed and promoted his system is explained and documented in Craze1, chapter 5 and passim.

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However Rorion's more direct inspirations (whether or not he was aware of it) were Yae Kichi Yabe and Irving Hancock (see Craze 1 and Craze 2).

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According to Erik Paulson:  "....Count Mayeda, who actually trained Helio Gracie, who was a judo and jiu-jitsu practitioner, and he was also a catch-wrestler. He had over 1,000 matches." From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6c8qeo36ZA

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The Joe Rogan-Edward Norton interview is probably not super-recent, but is still on youtube as of November 5, 2019. The comments about "Count Mayeda", aikido, etc. come at about 8:00. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUwU5VMXw64

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Koga Zansei (see below, page 30) was one who did. It was not common but it was not rare either.

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Takahashi 1999, p. 82.

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There are many Kodokan sources, including Kano's voluminous writings (see Craze 1), Koga Zansei 1934, Maruyama 1939, the writings of Oimatsu Shinichi, and others. Jūdō Daijiten (_“¹‘厫“T) provides brief summaries based on the abovementioned (however, errors are included as well). Maeda's significance for Kodokan was that he was "spreading judo". In that regard, his professional ring activities were a double-edged sword and mixed blessing.

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Kohyama 1997, pp. 105-106.

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Dr. Noguchi's Journey, 2003, by Atsushi Kita (Kodansha International, trans. Peter Duefee). Dr. Noguchi also changed his name. He was originally named Noguchi Seisaku. He died in November 1928 in Bahia, Brazil via Rio de Janeiro, while investigating a yellow fever outbreak (Kita pp. 230-231).

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There are many excellent studies of Japanese martial arts history (and are cited in Craze 1). With very few exceptions all are in Japanese only. However, none have much (or anything) to do with Maeda.

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Maeda described this fight in Susukida 1912-a, pp. 132-155. Susukida almost certainly embellished it.

References

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Cairus, Jose. (2011). Modernization, Nationalism, and the Elite: The Genesis of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, 1905-1920. Tempo e Argumento, 3(2), pp. 100-121.  

Gracie, Reila. (2008). Carlos Gracie: O Criador de uma Dinastia. Rio de Janeiro: Record.

Jūdō Daijiten  _“¹‘厫“T•ÒWGˆõ‰ï. (1999). _“¹‘厫“T. “Œ‹ž: ƒAƒeƒl‘–[.

Koga  ŒÃ‰êŽc¯. (1934). u“¹ŠÙ¡Ì•¨Œê. “Ç”„V•·.

Kohyama  _ŽR“TŽm. (1997). ƒ‰ƒCƒIƒ“‚Ì–²\ƒRƒ“ƒf‚ŃRƒ}‘O“cŒõ¢“`. “Œ‹ž: ¬ŠwŠÙ.

Kojima   ¬“‡’å“ñ. (1983). —Í“¹ŽRˆÈ‘O‚Ì—Í“¹ŽR‚½‚¿ (Rikidozans before Rikidozan). “Œ‹ž: ŽOˆê‘–[.

Kudō  H“¡—‹‰î. (1972.) `”é˜^“ú–{_“¹. “Œ‹žƒXƒ|[ƒcV•·

Matsunami ¼˜QŒ’‘¾. (2002). Maeda Mitsuyo: ¢ŠE‘ŠŽè‚ɉ^í‰^Ÿ. In “ú–{l‚¨‘«Õ,@pp. 16-58.@“Œ‹ž: ŽYŒoV•·“ñƒ†[ƒXƒT[ƒrƒXB

Marushima  ŠÛ“‡—²—Y. (1997). ‘O“cŒõ¢\¢ŠE_“¹•ŽÒCs\. “Œ‹ž: “‡’Ï‘–[A

Maruyama (Ed.) ŠÛŽRŽO‘¢(•Ò’˜). (1939). ‘å“ú–{_“¹Žj. “Œ‹ž: u“¹ŠÙ.

Oimatsu  ˜V¼Mˆê. (1955). _“¹ŒÜ\”NŽj. º˜a30DŽžŽ–’ʐMŽÐ.

Oimatsu  ˜V¼Mˆê. (1966). _“¹•S”N. º˜a41DŽžŽ–’ʐMŽÐ.

Oimatsu  ˜V¼Mˆê. (1976, 1979). _“¹•S”N (‰ü’èV”Å). º˜a51DŽžŽ–’ʐMŽÐ.

Oimatsu  ˜V¼Mˆê. (1984-a). u“¹ŠÙ_“¹“a“°‚̐l‚Ñ‚Æ1. _“¹, 55:11,  pp. 34-37.

Oimatsu  ˜V¼Mˆê. (1984-b). u“¹ŠÙ_“¹“a“°‚̐l‚Ñ‚Æ2. _“¹, 55:12,  pp. 24-27.  

Pereira, Eduardo. (1998). Jiu-Jitsu Brasileiro. Boletim da Federação de Jiu-Jitsu, Ano 1, No. 1, Setembro. (English translation here).

Susukida  ”–“cŽa‰_. (1912-a/–¾Ž¡45). ‘O“cŒõ¢‹LEw¢ŠE‰¡s_“¹•ŽÒC‹Æx”Ž•¶ŠÙ.

Susukida ”–“cŽa‰_. (1912-b/‘吳1). ‘O“cŒõ¢‹LEwV_“¹•ŽÒCsx”Ž•¶ŠÙ.

Susukida ”–“cŽa‰_. (1943). “ú–{_“¹°‘O“cŒõ¢‚̐¢ŠE§”e. ’ߏ‘–[.

Tanigami ’JŠ˜q“¿. (2012). _“¹‚Ì•‹y‚Æ•Ï—e‚ÉŠÖ‚·‚錤‹†: ƒOƒŒƒCƒV[_p‚É’…–Ú‚µ‚Ä (‚»‚Ì 1). “Œ—m–@Šw, 55(3), 304-285.

Takahashi@ ‚‹´GK. _“¹‰Æ‚Ì‚Ý‚½ŠJ‘ñ‚Ö‚Ì–². In •¨Œê\‚Q‚O¢‹Il•¨“`B“Œ‹žFŠ”Ž®‰ïŽÐ‚¬‚ス‚¢, p. 82.

Yokota  ‰¡“c‡–í. (1996). –¾Ž¡ƒoƒ“ƒJƒ‰‰õl“`. ’}–€‘–[.

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More Myths and Misconceptions about the Gracie Family and Gracie Jiu-Jitsu, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, and jiu-jitsu, see:

Four Questions & Answers about BJJ History

The Backstory

Myths and Misconceptions in 1988 Gracies in Action 1

Myths and Misconceptions about Gracie Jiu-Jitsu in 1989 Playboy Article

Myths and Misconceptions in 1992 Gracies in Action 2

Myths and Misconceptions about Gracie Jiu-Jitsu in Japan

Myths and Misconceptions about Jiu-Jitsu and BJJ@

Posted October 22, 2019 (JST)

Updated November 6, 2919 (JST). Thanks to an anon. reader for bringing the Joe Rogan-Edward Norton interview to our attention. Updated November 6, 2919 (JST). Thanks to an anon. reader for bringing the Joe Rogan-Edward Norton interview to our attention.

Updated November 19, 2019, several typos fixed.

(c) 2019, Roberto Pedreira. All rights reserved.

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GTR Archives 2000-2020

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